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Volume the drug



Drug Distribution to Tissues - Clinical Pharmacology

11.16.2017 | Abigail Mackenzie

Explore the Drug Distribution to Tissues from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. Volume of distribution. The apparent volume of distribution is the.

With aging, the blood-brain barrier may become less effective, allowing increased passage of compounds into the brain. Drugs reach the CNS via brain capillaries and CSF. The endothelial cells of brain capillaries, which appear to be more tightly joined to one another than those of most capillaries, slow the diffusion of water-soluble drugs. The astrocytic sheath consists of a layer of glial connective tissue cells (astrocytes) close to the basement membrane of the capillary endothelium. The reason is the blood-brain barrier, which consists of the endothelium of brain capillaries and the astrocytic sheath.

Use of unbound volumes of drug distribution in pharmacokinetic

7.12.2017 | James Laird
Volume the drug

Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011 Jan 18;42(1-2):91-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2010.10.011. Epub 2010 Nov 2. Use of unbound volumes of drug distribution in pharmacokinetic.

2010 Elsevier B.V.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA.

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The distribution pattern of the drug in the body and the time course of unbound (pharmacologically active) drug concentrations correlated with the unbound volumes of distribution, but not with the total volumes of distribution. In conclusion, unbound volumes of distribution appropriay describe the drug distribution pattern and the time course of unbound drug concentrations and are recommended for use as primary pharmacokinetic parameters in pharmaceutical research. Pharmacokinetics of diazepam were appropriay described by three-compartment pharmacokinetic model that incorporated the processes of plasma protein binding and tissue permeation. This study assessed effects of drugs' plasma protein binding and tissue distribution on volume of drug distribution and identified the most appropriate ways for its calculation. Effects of the distribution factors on the unbound and total drug plasma concentrations and on the corresponding volumes of distribution were studied using pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation approach based on in vitro and in vivo concentration vs. According to this model, displacement of the drug from plasma proteins increases the unbound (but not the total) plasma concentrations and induces faster drug elimination from the body. time data of diazepam, a model drug with extensive plasma protein binding and tissue distribution. Volume of drug distribution is a primary pharmacokinetic parameter.

Impact of Luminal Fluid Volume on the Drug Absorption After Oral

6.11.2017 | Abigail Mackenzie
Volume the drug

Impact of Luminal Fluid Volume on the Drug Absorption After Oral Administration: Analysis Based on In Vivo Drug Concentration-Time Profile in.

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biopharmaceutics classification system; gastrointestinal; luminal volume; oral absorption; osmolality; passive diffusion; permeability.

The objective of this study is to clarify the influence of fluid volume in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on the oral drug absorption. In vivo rat luminal concentrations of FITC-dextran (FD-4), a nonabsorbable marker, and drugs (metoprolol and atenolol) after oral coadministration as solutions with different osmolarity were determined by direct sampling of residual water in each segment of the GI tract. The luminal FD-4 concentration after oral administration as hyposmotic solution was significantly higher than that after administration as isosmotic or hyperosmotic solution. As the change in FD-4 concentration reflects the change in the volume of luminal fluid, it indicated that the luminal volume was greatly influenced by osmolality of solution ingested orally. Then, fraction of drug absorbed (Fa) in these segments was calculated by comparing the area under the luminal concentration-time curve of FD-4 with those of drugs. Fa values of two model drugs in each GI segment decreased with increase in luminal fluid volume, and the impact of the fluid volume was marked for Fa of atenolol (a low permeable drug) than for that of metoprolol (a high permeable drug). These findings should be beneficial to assure the effectiveness and safety of oral drug therapy.

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Volume I Drug and Chemical Control

8.13.2017 | Abigail Mackenzie
Volume the drug

Volume I covers drug and chemical control activities. In addition Major Illicit Drug Producing, Drug-Transit, Significant Source, Precursor Chemical, and Money.

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Common Abbreviations International Agreements Introduction.

The International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) is an annual report by the Department of State to Congress prepared in accordance with the Foreign Assistance Act. It describes the efforts of key countries to attack all aspects of the international drug trade in Calendar Year 2015. Volume I covers drug and chemical control activities.

Policy and Program Developments U.S. Government Assistance Chemical Controls Country Reports.

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Volume of Distribution in Drug Design

10.15.2017 | Brianna Miers
Volume the drug

Volume of distribution is one of the most important pharmacokinetic properties of a drug candidate. It is a major determinant of half-life and.